学术报告-Anewparadigmforprokaryoticandeukaryoticcellsurvival:DynamicreprogrammingoftRNAmodificationsandribosomescontrolsselectivetranslationofstressresponseproteins
发布时间 :2011-10-13  阅读次数 :2311

报告题目:A new paradigm for prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell survival:  Dynamic reprogramming of tRNA modifications and ribosomes controls selective translation of stress response proteins
报 告 人:Peter C. Dedon
Department of Biological Engineering
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
77 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139
报告时间:2011年10月17日 上午9:30
报告地点:徐汇校区哲生馆112会议室
组织单位:生命科学技术学院分子微生物代谢实验室
上海交通大学生命科学技术学院
Abstract:
Cells respond to environmental changes by altering gene expression at several levels, with translational control mechanisms being poorly understood.  Emerging evidence points to complex interactions between tRNA, mRNA and ribosomes that control the rate and fidelity of translation. Contributing to this complexity are ~200 genes encoding tRNAs in humans,
dozens of genes encoding ribosomal RNA and proteins, and >100 different ribonucleoside modifications in tRNA and rRNA  across all organisms in addition to the canonical A, C, G and U.   While RNA modifications are emerging as critical players in tRNA stability, stress response and cell growth, information about the higher-level biological function of ribonucleoside modifications is lacking.
To explore the biological function of RNA modifications, we recently developed a platform for purification of individual RNA species and quantification of the full set of RNA modifications in an organism by liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry.  This platform revealed that the dozens of modified ribonucleosides in tRNA behave as a system, with reprogramming of the modifications in response to different types of cell stress.  This behavior was observed across the spectrum of living organisms, including bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells.  When cells were exposed to a diverse set of toxicants, such as hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid, ionizing radiation and a series of alkylating agents, multivariate statistical analysis revealed dynamic shifts in the population of RNA modifications as part of the response to damage, with signature  changes for each agent and for different doses of each agent.   Further, cells lacking the enzymes involved in synthesizing the tRNA modifications that changed significantly following toxicant exposure  proved to be hypersensitive to cytotoxicity caused by the toxicant.   Analysis of tRNA modifications affected by hydrogen peroxide exposure revealed a codon-specific translational bias favoring synthesis of specific ribosomal proteins and other stress response proteins.  These results suggest a step-wise mechanism of cell response involving reprogramming of tRNA modifications that leads to reprogramming of ribosome structure in the translational control of cellular stress responses.