报告题目: Cryptochrome: A blue light photoreceptor involved in circadian rhythms in both plants and animals
报告人：Emeritus Professor Anthony R Cashmore
Robert I. Williams Professor of Biology
Department of Biology
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA
Ph.D., University of Auckland, New Zealand
Sir George Grey Scholar, 1962
Sir Walter Mulholland Fellowship, 1968-70
Member, National Academy of Sciences, 2003
Member of the National Academy of Sciences, USA（美国科学院院士）
研究领域――Photoregulatory signal regulation
My research interests concern the mechanism by which plants respond to light. Plants use several different photoreceptors to enable them to sense the quality and quantity of light in the surrounding environment. In response to this information they adjust their growth and development accordingly. We are interested in the nature of these photoreceptors and the signaling mechanisms utilized to initiate specific responses –such responses include (at the molecular level) membrane depolarization, synthesis of pigments, changes in gene expression (and at the developmental level) seed germination, stem elongation, and flowering.
Our studies involve the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and we utilize a combination of genetic, molecular, and biochemical approaches. Several years ago we characterized cryptochrome, a photoreceptor that selectively senses blue and UV-A light. Interest in this photoreceptor has been heightened by the finding that related cryptochromes play important roles in the circadian rhythms of animals, including humans.
Herrera-Estrella, L., Van den Broeck, G., Maenhaut, R., Van Montagu, M., Schell, J., Timko, M., and Cashmore, A. R. (1984). Light-inducible and chloroplast-associated expression of a chimaeric gene introduced into Nicotiana tabacum using a Ti plasmid vector. Nature 310:115-120.
Van den Broeck, G., Timko, M.P., Kausch, A.P., Cashmore, A. R., Van Montagu, M., and Herrera-Estrella, L. (1985). Targeting of a foreign protein to chloroplasts by fusion to the transit peptide from the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase. Nature 313:358-363.
Timko, M.P., Kausch, A.P., Castresana, C., Fassler, J., Herrera-Estrella, L., Van den Broeck, G., Van Montagu, M., Schell, J., and Cashmore, A. R. (1985). Light regulation of plant gene expression by an upstream enhancer-like element. Nature 318:579-582.
Giuliano, G., Pichersky, E., Malik, V., Timko, M.P., Scolnik, P.A., and Cashmore, A. R. (1988). An evolutionarily conserved protein binding sequence upstream of a plant light-regulated gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 85:7089-7093.
Giuliano, G., Hoffman, N.E., Ko, K., Scolnik, P.A. and Cashmore, A. R. (1988). A light-entrained circadian clock controls transcription of several plant genes. EMBO J. 7:3635-3642
Schindler, U., and Cashmore, A. R. (1990). Photoregulated gene expression may involve ubiquitous DNA binding proteins. EMBO J., 9, 3415-3427
Donald R.G.K., and Cashmore, A. R. (1990). Mutation of either G-box or I-box sequences profoundly affects expression from the Arabidopsis rbcS-1A promoter. EMBO J., 9, 1717-1726
Ahmad, M. and Cashmore, A. R. (1993). HY4 gene of A. thaliana encodes a protein with characteristics of a blue-light photoreceptor. Nature. 366 : 162-166.
Lin, C., Robertson, D. E., Ahmad, M., Raibekas, A. A., Schuman Jorns, M., Dutton, P. L. and Cashmore, A. R. (1995). Association of flavin adenine dinucleotide with the Arabidopsis blue-light receptor CRY1. Science. 269 : 968-970.
Lin, C., Yang, H., Guo, H., Mockler, T., Chen, J. and Cashmore, A. R. (1998). Enhancement of the blue-light sensitivity of Arabidopsis seedlings by a blue light receptor cryptochrome 2. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 95 : 2686-2690.
Yang, H.-Q., Wu, Y., Tang, R.-H., Liu, D., Liu, Y., and Cashmore, A. R. (2000). The C-termini of Arabidopsis cryptochromes mediate a constitutive light response. Cell, 103 : 815-827.
Jarillo, J. A., Capel, J., Tang, R.-H., Yang, H.-Q., Alonso, J. M., Ecker, J. R. and Cashmore, A. R. (2001). An Arabidopsis circadian clock component interacts with both CRY1 and phyB. Nature, 410 : 487-490.
Jarillo, J. A., Gabrys, H., Capel, J., Alonso, J. M., Ecker, J. R. and Cashmore, A. R. (2001). Phototropin-related NPL1 controls chloroplast relocation induced by blue light. Nature 410, 952-4.
Yang, H. Q., Tang, R. H. and Cashmore, A. R. (2001). The signaling mechanism of Arabidopsis CRY1 involves direct interaction with COP1. The Plant Cell, 13 : 2573-2587
Cashmore, A. R. (2003). Cryptochromes: Enabling plants and animals to determine circadian time. Cell 114, 537-543.
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