马小京 的个人介绍页
马小京
马小京
讲席教授
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34205287

个人简历

上海交通大学“盛毓绶”冠名讲席教授,中组部“千人计划”入选者。1987年获英国爱丁堡大学分子遗传学专业博士学位,先后在美国宾夕法尼亚大学担任高级研究员、康奈尔大学担任终身教授,长期从事探索免疫学领域的基础研究,在揭示免疫反应细胞和分子作用机制及开创新的探测技术方法手段方面取得了突出成绩。在Nature Immunology、Immunity、J. Experimental Medicine, J.Immunology等高水平国际期刊杂志发表SCI论文80余篇,相关研究成果的独特与创新性被Nature和Cell、Nature Reviews Immunology等进行专题报导和评论。曾荣获Young Investigators Award by International Cytokine Society、Howard Temin Award (NCI/NIH)等奖励。

研究方向

MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF cytokine GENE EXPRESSION and their immunological activities IN inflammatory diseases

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric, proinflammatory cytokine produced by phagocytic cells and plays a critical role in the activation and function of antigen-presenting cells and effector lymphocytes during microbial infection. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a homodimeric cytokine produced mainly by monocytes/macrophages, activated T and B lymphocytes. IL-10 has potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities on myeloid cell functions while it also exerts immune stimulatory effects on B cells for proliferation, differentiation and antibody production. It is a pivotal homeostatic regulator of immune reactivity. The production of IL-12 and IL-10 by phagocytic and antigen-presenting cells is regulated in opposite manners during innate and adaptive immune responses. The understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the gene expression of IL-12 and IL-10 in interactions between pathogens and the immune system is essential to efforts to develop therapeutic strategies for infectious, malignant and autoimmune diseases. We are currently investigating in the following areas:

I. Molecular mechanism of the regulation of IL-23 gene expression during phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages and dendritic cells, and its impact on the development of Th17 cells in lupus.
II. Molecular mechanisms of the regulation of IL-12 gene expression in APCs by the Crohn’s disease-associated mutants of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (Nod2) and IL-12-mediated inflammatory bowel disease.  
III. Molecular and cellular mechanisms whereby cancer cell-derived novel molecules inhibits dendritic cell-induced T cell activation and T cell-mediated antitumor immunity.
IV. Role and mechanism of CCL5 in the development of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in triple negative breast cancer.
V. Control of inflammation by progranulin through regulation of IL-10 production in sepsis and in the central nervous system.

发表论文

1. Murray, H, Zhang, Y, Zhang, Y, Raman, V, Reed, S, and Ma, X. 2013. Regulatory Actions of TLR2 and TLR4 in Leishmania donovani Infection in the Liver. Infect Immun 81(7):2318-2326.
2. Zhang, Y, Lu, D, Kim, H, Kurt, RA, Wen, B, Li, Y, Ma, X. 2013. A novel role of hematopoietic CCL5 in promoting triple-negative mammary tumor progression by regulating generation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Cell Res. 23(3):394-408.
3. Lu, TT, Kim, H, Ma, X. 2012. IL-17, a new kid on the block of tertiary lymphoid organs. Mol. Cell. Immunol. Jan;9(1):3-4.
4. Yin, F, Banerjee, R, Thomas, B, Zhou, P, Qian, L, Jia, T, Ma, X, Ma, Y, Iadecola, C, Beal, MF, Nathan, C and Ding, H. 2010. Exaggerated Inflammation, Impaired Host Defense and Neuropathology in Progranulin-Deficient Mice. J. Exp. Med. 207(1):117-128.
5. Jiao, X., Katiyar, S., Willmarth, NE, Liu, M., Flomenberg, N., Ma, X., Lisanti, MP, Pestell, RG. 2010. C-jun induces mammary epithelial cellular invasion and breast cancer stem cell expansion. J. Biol. Chem. 285(11):8218-8226.
6. Kang, X, Kim, HJ, Ramirez, M, Salameh, S, Ma, X. 2010. The Septic Shock-associated IL-10 -1082 A>G Polymorphism Mediates Allele-specific Transcription via Poly ADP-ribose Polymerase 1 in Macrophages Engulfing Apoptotic Cells. J. Immunol. 184:3718-3724.
7. Zhang, Y. Ma, X. 2010. Triptolide Inhibits IL-12/IL-23 Gene Expression in Antigen-presenting Cells via CCAAT/enhancer-Binding Protein Alpha. J. Immunol. 184:3866-3877.
8. Noguchi, E., Homma, Y., Kang, X., Netea, MG, and Ma, X. 2009. A Crohn’s disease–associated NOD2 mutation suppresses transcription of human IL10 by inhibiting activity of the nuclear ribonucleoprotein hnRNP-A1. Nature Immunology. 10(5):471-479.
9. Leavenworth JW, Ma X, Mo YY, Pauza ME. SUMO conjugation contributes to immune deviation in nonobese diabetic mice by suppressing c-Maf transactivation of IL-4. 2009. J Immunol. 2009 Jul 15;183(2):1110-1119.
10. Jayakumar, A., Widenmaier, R., Ma, X., and McDowell, MA. 2008. Transcriptional inhibition of interleukin-12 promoter activity in leishmania spp.-infected macrophages. J. Parasitol., 94(1):84–93.
11. Chung, E., Liu, J., Homa, Y., Zhang,Y., Brendolan, A., Saggese, M., Han, J., Silverstein, R., Selleri, L., X.Ma. 2007. Interleukin-10 Expression in Macrophages during Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Cells Is Mediated by homeoproteins Pbx-1 and Prep-1. Immunity. 27:952-964.
12. Liu, J., Guan, X., X. Ma. 2007. Regulation of IL-27 p28 gene expression in macrophages through MyD88- and Interferon--mediated pathways. J Exp Med. 204:141-152.
13. Park-Min, K., Serbina, N., Yang, W., X. Ma, Krystal, G., Neel, BJ, Nutt, SL, Hu, X., and Ivashkiv, LB. 2007. FcγRIII-Dependent Inhibition of Interferon-γ Responses Mediates Suppressive Effects of Intravenous Immune Globulin. Immunity. 26, 67-78.
14. Chung, EY, Liu, J., Zhang, Y., and X. Ma. 2007. Differential Expression in Lupus-associated IL-10 Promoter Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms Is Mediated by Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1. Genes & Immunity. 8(7):577-589.
15. Homma, Y., Cao, S., Shi, X., and X. Ma. 2007. The Th2 transcription factor c-Maf inhibits IL-12p35 gene expression in activated macrophages by targeting NF-B nuclear translocation. J. Interferon & Cytokine Res. 27(9):799-808.
16. Werts, C., le Bourhis, L., Liu, J., Magalhaes, JG., Fritz, JH., Stockinger, S., Decker, T., Philpott, DJ., Ma, X., and Girardin. SE. 2007. Nod1 and Nod2 induce CCL5/RANTES through the NF-κB pathway. Eur. J. Immunol. 37(9):2499-2508.
17. Murray, H.W., C.W. Tsai, J. Liu, and X. Ma. 2006. Responses to Leishmania donovani in Mice Deficient in Interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-12/IL-23, or IL-18. Infect Immun 74:4370-4374.
18. Murray, H.W., Z. Xiang, and X. Ma. 2006. Responses to Leishmania donovani in mice deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74:1013-1015.
19. Murray, H.W., C.W. Tsai, J. Liu, and X. Ma. 2006. Visceral Leishmania donovani Infection in Interleukin-13-/- Mice. Infect Immun 74:2487-2490.
20. Liu, J., and X. Ma. 2006. Interferon regulatory factor 8 regulates rantes gene transcription in cooperation with interferon regulatory factor-1, NF-kappa B and PU.1. J Biol Chem 281:19188-19195.
21. Liu, J., Mankani, G., Shi, X., Meyer, M., Cunningham-Runddles, S., Ma, X., Sun, Z. 2006. The Circadian Clock Period 2 Gene Regulates IFN-gamma production of NK Cells in Host Response to LPS-induced Endotoxic Shock. Infect Immun 74:4750-4756.
22. Wu, Y., Z. Liu, Z. Xiang, C. Zeng, Z. Chen, X. Ma, and L. Li. 2006. Obesity-related glomerulopathy: insights from gene expression profiles of the glomeruli derived from renal biopsy samples. Endocrinology 147:44-50.
23. Tripathi, P., R. Madan, C. Chougnet, S. Divanovic, X. Ma, L.M. Wahl, T. Gajewski, C.L. Karp, and D.A. Hildeman. 2006. An adenoviral vector for probing promoter activity in primary immune cells. J Immunol Methods 311:19-30.
24. Torroella-Kouri, M., Ma, X., Perry, G., Ivanova, M., Cejas, P.J., Owen, J.L., Iragavarapu-Charyulu, V. Lopez, D.M. 2005. Diminished expression of transcription factors NFkB and C/EBP underlie a novel tumor evasion mechanism affecting macrophages of mammary tumor-bearing mice. Cancer Research 65:10578-10584.
25. Shan, D., L. Chen, J.T. Njardarson, C. Gaul, X. Ma, S.J. Danishefsky, and X.Y. Huang. 2005. Synthetic analogues of migrastatin that inhibit mammary tumor metastasis in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:3772-3776.
26. Murray, H.W., K.C. Flanders, D.D. Donaldson, J.P. Sypek, P.J. Gotwals, J. Liu, and X. Ma. 2005. Antagonizing deactivating cytokines to enhance host defense and chemotherapy in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. Infect Immun 73:3903-3911.
27. Liu, J., X. Guan, and X. Ma. 2005. Interferon regulatory factor 1 is an essential and direct transcriptional activator for interferon {gamma}-induced RANTES/CCL5 expression in macrophages. J Biol Chem 280:24347-24355.
28. Cao, S., J. Liu, L. Song, and X. Ma. 2005. The Protooncogene c-Maf Is an Essential Transcription Factor for IL-10 Gene Expression in Macrophages. J Immunol 174:3484-3492.
29. Shi, X., S. Cao, M. Mitsuhashi, Z. Xiang, and X. Ma. 2004. Genome-wide analysis of molecular changes in IL-12-induced control of mammary carcinoma via IFN-gamma-independent mechanisms. J Immunol 172:4111-4122.
30. Shi, X., J. Liu, Z. Xiang, M. Mitsuhashi, R.S. Wu, and X. Ma. 2004. Gene expression analysis in Interleukin-12-induced suppression of mouse mammary carcinoma. Int J Cancer 110:570-578.
31. Mitsuhashi, M., J. Liu, S. Cao, X. Shi, and X. Ma. 2004. Regulation of interleukin-12 gene expression and its anti-tumor activities by prostaglandin E2 derived from mammary carcinomas. J Leukoc Biol 76:322-332.
32. Luo, Q., X. Ma, S.M. Wahl, J.J. Bieker, M. Crossley, and L.J. Montaner. 2004. Activation and repression of interleukin-12 p40 transcription by erythroid Kruppel-like factor in macrophages. J Biol Chem 279:18451-18456.
33. Liu, J., X. Guan, T. Tamura, K. Ozato, and X. Ma. 2004. Synergistic Activation of Interleukin-12 p35 Gene Transcription by Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 and Interferon Consensus Sequence-binding Protein. J Biol Chem 279:55609-55617.
34. Liu, J., Z. Xiang, and X. Ma. 2004. Role of IFN regulatory factor-1 and IL-12 in immunological resistance to pathogenesis of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced T lymphoma. J Immunol 173:1184-1193.
35. Kim, S., K.B. Elkon, and X. Ma. 2004. Transcriptional suppression of interleukin-12 gene expression following phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Immunity 21:643-653.
36. Cao, S., Xiang, Z., and Ma, X. 2004. Global Gene Expression Profiling in Interleukin-12-induced Activation of CD8+ Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes against Mouse Mammary Carcinoma. Cellular and Molecular Immunology 1:357-366.
37. Murray, H.W., A.L. Moreira, C.M. Lu, J.L. DeVecchio, M. Matsuhashi, X. Ma, and F.P. Heinzel. 2003. Determinants of response to interleukin-10 receptor blockade immunotherapy in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. J Infect Dis 188:458-464.
38. Liu, J., S. Cao, L.M. Herman, and X. Ma. 2003. Differential regulation of interleukin (IL)-12 p35 and p40 gene expression and interferon (IFN)-gamma-primed IL-12 production by IFN regulatory factor 1. J Exp Med 198:1265-1276.
39. Kim, S.J., D. Gershov, X. Ma, N. Brot, and K.B. Elkon. 2002. I-PLA(2) activation during apoptosis promotes the exposure of membrane lysophosphatidylcholine leading to binding by natural immunoglobulin M antibodies and complement activation. J Exp Med 196:655-665.
40. Cao, S., J. Liu, M. Chesi, P.L. Bergsagel, I.C. Ho, R.P. Donnelly, and X. Ma. 2002. Differential regulation of IL-12 and IL-10 gene expression in macrophages by the basic leucine zipper transcription factor c-Maf fibrosarcoma. J Immunol 169:5715-5725.
41. Grazia Cappiello, M., F.S. Sutterwala, G. Trinchieri, D.M. Mosser, and X. Ma. 2001. Suppression of Il-12 transcription in macrophages following Fc gamma receptor ligation. J Immunol 166:4498-4506.
42. Byrnes, A.A., X. Ma, P. Cuomo, K. Park, L. Wahl, S.F. Wolf, H. Zhou, G. Trinchieri, and C.L. Karp. 2001. Type I interferons and IL-12: convergence and cross-regulation among mediators of cellular immunity. Eur J Immunol 31:2026-2034.
43. Becker, C., S. Wirtz, X. Ma, M. Blessing, P.R. Galle, and M.F. Neurath. 2001. Regulation of IL-12 p40 promoter activity in primary human monocytes: roles of NF-kappaB, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta, and PU.1 and identification of a novel repressor element (GA-12) that responds to IL-4 and prostaglandin E(2). J Immunol 167:2608-2618.
44. Wang, I.M., C. Contursi, A. Masumi, X. Ma, G. Trinchieri, and K. Ozato. 2000. An IFN-gamma-inducible transcription factor, IFN consensus sequence binding protein (ICSBP), stimulates IL-12 p40 expression in macrophages. J Immunol 165:271-279.
45. Ma, X., J. Sun, E. Papasavvas, H. Riemann, S. Robertson, J. Marshall, R.T. Bailer, A. Moore, R.P. Donnelly, G. Trinchieri, and L.J. Montaner. 2000. Inhibition of IL-12 production in human monocyte-derived macrophages by TNF. J Immunol 164:1722-1729.
46. Pardoux, C., X. Ma, S. Gobert, S. Pellegrini, P. Mayeux, F. Gay, G. Trinchieri, and S. Chouaib. 1999. Downregulation of interleukin-12 (IL-12) responsiveness in human T cells by transforming growth factor-beta: relationship with IL-12 signaling. Blood 93:1448-1455.
47. Na, S.Y., B.Y. Kang, S.W. Chung, S.J. Han, X. Ma, G. Trinchieri, S.Y. Im, J.W. Lee, and T.S. Kim. 1999. Retinoids inhibit interleukin-12 production in macrophages through physical associations of retinoid X receptor and NFkappaB. J Biol Chem 274:7674-7680.
48. Ma, X., H. Riemann, G. Gri, and G. Trinchieri. 1998. Positive and negative regulation of interleukin-12 gene expression. Eur Cytokine Netw 9:54-64.
49. Karp, C.L., M. Wysocka, X. Ma, M. Marovich, R.E. Factor, T. Nutman, M. Armant, L. Wahl, P. Cuomo, and G. Trinchieri. 1998. Potent suppression of IL-12 production from monocytes and dendritic cells during endotoxin tolerance. Eur J Immunol 28:3128-3136.
50. Gri, G., D. Savio, G. Trinchieri, and X. Ma. 1998. Synergistic regulation of the human interleukin-12 p40 promoter by NFkappaB and Ets transcription factors in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells and macrophages. J Biol Chem 273:6431-6438.
51. Coughlin, C.M., K.E. Salhany, M.S. Gee, D.C. LaTemple, S. Kotenko, X. Ma, G. Gri, M. Wysocka, J.E. Kim, L. Liu, F. Liao, J.M. Farber, S. Pestka, G. Trinchieri, and W.M. Lee. 1998. Tumor cell responses to IFNgamma affect tumorigenicity and response to IL-12 therapy and antiangiogenesis. Immunity 9:25-34.
52. Aste-Amezaga, M., X. Ma, A. Sartori, and G. Trinchieri. 1998. Molecular mechanisms of the induction of IL-12 and its inhibition by IL-10. J Immunol 160:5936-5944.
53. Sartori, A., X. Ma, G. Gri, L. Showe, D. Benjamin, and G. Trinchieri. 1997. Interleukin-12: an immunoregulatory cytokine produced by B cells and antigen-presenting cells. Methods 11:116-127.
54. Moller, D.R., M. Wysocka, B.M. Greenlee, X. Ma, L. Wahl, G. Trinchieri, and C.L. Karp. 1997. Inhibition of human interleukin-12 production by pentoxifylline. Immunology 91:197-203.
55. Moller, D.R., M. Wysocka, B.M. Greenlee, X. Ma, L. Wahl, D.A. Flockhart, G. Trinchieri, and C.L. Karp. 1997. Inhibition of IL-12 production by thalidomide. J Immunol 159:5157-5161.
56. Ma, X., M. Neurath, G. Gri, and G. Trinchieri. 1997. Identification and characterization of a novel Ets-2-related nuclear complex implicated in the activation of the human interleukin-12 p40 gene promoter. J Biol Chem 272:10389-10395.
57. Ma, X., M. Aste-Amezaga, G. Gri, F. Gerosa, and G. Trinchieri. 1997. Immunomodulatory functions and molecular regulation of IL-12. Chem Immunol 68:1-22.
58. Ma, X., J.M. Chow, G. Gri, G. Carra, F. Gerosa, S.F. Wolf, R. Dzialo, and G. Trinchieri. 1996. The interleukin 12 p40 gene promoter is primed by interferon gamma in monocytic cells. J Exp Med 183:147-157.
59. Ma X, Aste-Amezaga M Trinchieri G. Regulation of interleukin-12 production. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1996; 795: 13-25.
60. Ma X, Gri G Trinchieri G. A novel ets-2-related nuclear factor is involved in transcriptional activation of the human interleukin-12 p40 gene promoter in response to interferon-gamma and LPS stimulation of monocytic cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1996; 795: 357-60.
61. Chehimi J, Ma X, Chouaib S, Zyad A, Nagashunmugam T, Wojcik L, Chehimi S, Nissim L Frank I. Differential production of interleukin 10 during human immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1996; 12: 1141-9.
62. Aste-Amezaga M, Ma X Trinchieri G. Regulation by interleukin-10 of Staphylococcus aureus- and lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-12 gene expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1996; 795: 319-20.
63. Ma X, D'Andrea A, Kubin M, Aste-Amezaga M, Sartori A, Monteiro J, Showe L, Wysocka M Trinchieri G. Production of interleukin-12. Res Immunol 1995; 146: 432-8.
64. D'Andrea A, Ma X, Aste-Amezaga M, Paganin C Trinchieri G. Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 on the production of cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: priming for IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha production. J Exp Med 1995; 181: 537-46.
65. Cassatella MA, Meda L, Gasperini S, D'Andrea A, Ma X Trinchieri G. Interleukin-12 production by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Eur J Immunol 1995; 25: 1-5.
66. Chehimi J, Starr SE, Frank I, D'Andrea A, Ma X, MacGregor RR, Sennelier J Trinchieri G. Impaired interleukin 12 production in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. J Exp Med 1994; 179: 1361-6.
67. Ma X, Saitoh N Curtis PJ. Purification and characterization of a nuclear DNA-binding factor complex containing topoisomerase II and chromosome scaffold protein 2. J Biol Chem 1993; 268: 6182-8.
68. D'Andrea A, Aste-Amezaga M, Valiante NM, Ma X, Kubin M Trinchieri G. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) inhibits human lymphocyte interferon gamma-production by suppressing natural killer cell stimulatory factor/IL-12 synthesis in accessory cells. J Exp Med 1993; 178: 1041-8.
69. Ma X, Fraser P Curtis PJ. A differentiation stage-specific factor interacts with mouse carbonic anhydrase form I gene and a conserved sequence in mammalian beta-globin genes. Differentiation 1991; 47: 135-41.
70. Clark AJ, Chave-Cox A, Ma X. Bishop JO. Analysis of mouse major urinary protein genes: variation between the exonic sequences of group 1 genes and a comparison with an active gene out with group 1 both suggest that gene conversion has occurred between MUP genes. EMBO J 1985; 4: 3167-71.

Books, Book Chapters and Reviews

1. Dandan Lv, Yan Zhang, Ha-Jeong Kim, Lixing Zhang, Ma, X. 2013. CCL5 as a Potential Immunotherapeutic Target in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. Cell Mol Immunol. 10(4):303-10.
2. Du, QL., Xie, JP., Kim, HJ., Ma, X. 2013. Type I interferon: the mediator of bacterial infection induced necroptosis. Cell Mol Immunol. 10(1):4-6.
3. Kim, HJ, Lv, D., Peng, T., Ma, X. 2012. Golgi phosphoprotein 2 in physiology and in diseases. Cell & Bioscience 2:31
4. Kim, HJ, Zhang, Y. Ma, X. 2012. Chapter 1.2. Genetics of inflammatory bowel disease. Inflammatory Bowel Disease, E-Book Series, edited by L.E. Koutroubakis, Future Science Group, London, UK. In press
5. Zhang, Y., Kim, HJ, Yamamoto, S., Kang, X., Ma, X. 2010. Regulation of Interleukin-10 Gene Expression in Macrophages Engulfing Apoptotic Cells. J. Interfron & Cytokine Res. 30(3):1-9
6. Yamamoto, S., Ma, X. 2009. Role of Nod2 in the development of Crohn’s disease. Microbes and Infection. 11(12):912-918.
7. Chung, E.Y., S.J. Kim, and X.J. Ma. 2006. Regulation of cytokine production during phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Cell Res 16:154-161.
8. Liu, J., Cao, S., Kim, S.J., Chung, E.Y., Homma, Y., Jimenez, V., Ma, X. 2005. Interleukin-12: an update on its immunological activities, signaling and regulation of gene expression. Current Immunology Reviews 1:119-137.
9. Kim, S., E.Y. Chung, and X. Ma. 2005. Immunological Consequences of Macrophage-Mediated Clearance of Apoptotic Cells. Cell Cycle 4:231-234.
10. Kim, S.J., Gershov, D., Ma, X., Brot, N., Elkon, E.L. 2003. Opsonization of Apoptotic Cells and its Effect on Macrophage and T cell Immune Responses. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 987:68-78.
11. Xiang, Z., Yang, Y., Ma, X., and Ding, W. 2003. Microarray Expression Profiling: Analysis and Applications. Current Opinions in Drug Discovery and Development 6(3):384-395.
12. Ma, X. 2001. TNF- and IL-12: a balancing act in macrophage functioning. Microbes and Infection. Forum in Immunology: inhibitory receptors of mononuclear phagocytes. Institut Pasteur. 3(2):121-9.
13. Ma. X. and Trinchieri G. 2001. Regulation of Interleukin-12 production in antigen-presenting cells. Advances in Immunology. 79:55-92.
14. Ma. X. and Montaner, L.J. 2000. HIV-1 infection: proinflammatory response and IL-12 production by macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 68(3):383-90.
15. Ma, X., Reimann, H., Gri, G., and Trinchieri, G. 1998. Positive and negative regulation of Interleukin-12 gene expression. Eur Cytokine Netw. 9(3 Suppl):54-64.
16. Neurath, M., Ma, X., and Pettersson, S. (262 pages). 1997. DNA-protein interactions. Spectrum Akadenvischer Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin, Oxford.
17. Ma X., Aste-Amezaga M, Gri G, Gerosa F, Trinchieri G. 1997. Immunomodulatory functions and molecular regulation of IL-12. Chem Immunol. 68:1-22.

研究成果

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